使变硬英文(硬饮料英文)

英语学习 2023-01-16 13:19 11

摘要:H1.habit:n.习惯;习性用法小结→关联词组:good/badhabit好/坏习惯;formthehabitof养成……的习惯;livinghabit生活...


中考英语核心词汇详解(H)


H

1. habit:n.习惯;习性

用法小结→关联词组:

good/bad habit好/坏习惯;

form the habit of养成……的习惯;

living habit生活习惯;

eating habit饮食习惯;

out of habit出于习惯;

break the habit改掉习惯

词性转换:

habitual adj.习惯的,大学生英语单词(大学生英语单词软件)习以为常的;

habitually adv.惯常,习惯地

(2019,山东卷,单项填空)

5.My brother has a healthy living habit. He stays up late, and he is an early bird.

A. usually B. hardly

C. often D. always

2. hang

v.悬挂;垂落;吊着;把……吊起

词形变化:过去式hung,过去分词hung

用法小结:

关联词组:

hang on坚持下去;握住不放;不挂断;

hang out闲逛;

hang up (the phone)挂断电话;

hang onto依附;紧紧抓住

用法:hang可作及物动词,接名词或代词作宾语;也可作不及物动词,其主动形式含有被动意义。例如:

You may hang your coat on the hook.

你可以把外套挂在钩子上。

All the shirts hang together in the same wardrobe.

所有的衬衫都挂在同一个衣橱里。

(2019,浙江卷,词汇运用)

44. We ____________ (很少地〕hang out at weekends recently.

3. happen

v.(偶然)发生;碰巧

用法小结:

1.表示“某地(某时)发生了什么事”,常用

“sth.+ happen +地点/时间”句型,此时主语为事情。例如:

The story happened in 1998.

这个故事发生在1998年。

2.表示“某人出了某事(常指不好的事)”,常用

“sth.+ happen+to sb.”这一结构来表达。例如:

A car accident happened to her this morning.

今天上午她发生了交通事故。

What happened to you?=

what’s wrong with you?

你怎么啦?

3.表示“某人碰巧做某事”,常用

“sb.+ happen+ to do sth.”来表达。例如:

I happened to meet a friend of mine in the street yesterday.

昨天我碰巧在街上遇到了我的一个朋友。

4.表示“碰巧或恰巧发生某事”时,还可用

“It happens/happened that...”这一结构来表达。例如:

It happened that Brian and Peter were at home that day.

碰巧那天布莱恩和彼得在家了。

注:that从句中的主语是人时,该结构可与“sb.+ happen + to do sth.”结构互换。例如:

It happened that Brian and Peter were at home that day.= Brian and Peter happened to be at home that day.

词性转换:happening n.发生的事(常用复数):

There have been strange happenings here lately. 这儿最近发生了一些怪事。

(2019,浙江卷,完形填空)

How did this happen? I ___17___ we were friends.

17. A. found B. admitted

C. realized D. thought

4. hard

adj.硬的;困难的;努力的;

adv.努力地;艰难地;猛烈地

用法小结:

形容词词组:

hard disk硬盘;

hard drive硬盘驱动器;

have a hard time过得艰难;

hard copy硬拷贝;复印件

副词词组:

work hard努力工作(学习);

try hard努力

hard和hardly区别:

1.hard既是形容词,又是自己的副词,表示“努力的(地)”、“猛烈的(地)”;

2.hardly只作副词,其词义与hard相去甚远,指“几乎不”,表示否定概念。试比较:

He works hard.他努力工作。

He hardly works.他几乎不工作。

词性转换:

hardness n.硬度;

harden v.硬化;变硬;

hardship n.困苦,艰难险阻;

同义词:difficult adj.困难的

反义词:soft adj.软的;温柔的;

easy adj.容易的,简单的

(2019,浙江卷,完形)

Over three weekends of hard work, Sally turned her design into a real, working go-kart and painted it light blue.

5. health:n.健康,卫生

用法小结:

关联词组:

health care卫生保健;

physical health身体健康;

mental health心理健康;

World Health Organization世界卫生组织

词性转换:

healthy adj.健康的,健全的;healthily adv.健康地;

healthiness n.健康,健全

同义词:fitness n.健康;适当

(2019,山东卷,单项填空)

21. Tennis can exercise all of our muscles (肌肉) . And it requires _________to spend time with others. This is good for our health, too.

A. ours B. us C. we

6. hear:v.听到;听说

词形变化:过去式heard,过去分词heard

关联词组:

hear from sb.收到某人的信;

hear about听说,得知;

hear of听说过

1.hear与listen的区别:hear强调“听见”,即听的结果;listen强调听的动作;

2.hear sb. do sth.表示听到某人做某事的全过程;

hear sb. doing sth.强调听到某人正在做某事。试比较:

I heard him sing a song yesterday.

昨天我听见他唱了一支歌。

I could hear people singing happily next door.我可以听见隔壁有人在欢快地唱歌。

(2019,江苏卷,单项填空)

9.Could you speak in a loud voice so that I canhear you _______________?

A. quickly B. happily

C. slowly D. clearly

7. heat:n.热,高温;v.加热;使激动

用法小结:

词组:

heat wave热浪;

heat stroke中暑;

heat up加热

词性转换:

heated adj.热的;激动地,激烈的:

heated discussion激烈的讨论;

heater n.加热器

(2019,山东卷,动词应用)

The accident also caused heated discussions on the Internet.

8. heavy:adj.(沉)重的;大量的,严重的

用法小结:

除了可指重量之外,heavy常用来表示数量、程度或严重性之大,常见搭配有:

heavy traffic拥挤的交通;

heavy rain/snow大雨/雪;

heavy drinking/smoking大量饮酒/吸烟

词性转换:

heavily adv.沉重地;猛烈地;

heaviness n.沉重;沉闷

反义词:light adj.轻的

(2019,江苏卷,阅读B)

26. What does the table above show?

A. How heavy an egg can be.

B. How long to cook an egg in a pan.

C. How to make an egg sink.

D. How to check the age of an egg.

9. help:v.&n.帮助,帮忙

用法小结→动词词组:

help oneself (to sth.)自用(食物),自取所需;

can’t help (doing sth.)忍不住(做),情不自禁

名词词组:

with the help of sb.=

with sb.’s help

在……的帮助下;

ask for help寻求帮助

1.help作动词时,即是及物动词,也是不及物动词。常用结构有

help (sb.) with+名词,

help (sb.) in doing sth.,

help (sb.) (to) do sth.(接不定式时可以省略to):

He always helps (her) with the housework.

他总是帮着(她)做家务。

She helped (me) (to) organize the party.

她协助(我)筹备了晚会。

2.help做名词时,表示“帮助”时,常接介词with;还可以指“有帮助的人或物”,这时常接介词to:

Your advice was a big help to me.

你的建议对我很有帮助。

词性转换:

helpful adj.有帮助的,有益的;

helpfully adv.有益地,有用地;

helpless adj.无助的;没用的;

helplessly adv.无助地,无能为力地

(2019,北京卷,短文阅读)

I was mortified. My hands were shaking. I couldn't help crying ___16___.

16. A. sadly B. shyly

C. excitedly D. nervously

10. hide:v.把……藏起来;隐藏

用法小结→词形变化:

过去式hid,过去分词hidden

关联词组:

hide and seek捉迷藏

用法:hide可作及物动词表示“把……藏起来,隐瞒……”,也可作不及物动词,表示“隐藏,隐瞒”。常用的介词搭配有:

hide (sb./sth.) in/under/behind…(把……)藏于……;

hide (sb./sth.) from sb.对……隐瞒:

Do not hide your fear from yourself.

不要对自己隐瞒你的恐惧。

词性转换:

hidden adj.隐藏的:

hidden trouble/danger隐患

(2019,湖南卷,语法填空)

22.Keep trying, ______ you might surprisingly find hidden abilities within you.

A.but B.and C.or

11. history:n.历史;历史学

用法小结刁关联词组:

in history在历史上;

human history人类历史;

modern history近代史;

history museum历史博物馆;

history teacher历史老师

词性转换:

historic adj.有历史意义的;历史上著名的;

historical adj.历史的;史学的;基于史实的;

historically adv.历史上地;从历史观点上说

注意historic和historical的区别,

historic通常表示具有重要历史意义的;

historical通常表示涉及历史、史学、过去的事实。试比较:

Today is a historic day for our country.

今天是我国具有历史意义的日子。

He has been doing some historical study.

他一直在进行史学研究。

(2019年,江苏卷,词汇检测)

43. Amy and Annie will go on a natural history walk next ______________(星期日).

19. hit:v.打,撞,击中

词形变化:过去式hit,过去分词hit

用法小结:

hit sb./sth. with sth.

用……击打……;

hit sth. on/against sth.

使(身体部位)撞到(某物):

He hit his head on the low ceiling.

他的头碰了低矮的天花板。

熟词僻义:hit作名词时,除了表示“击,打”,还可表示“很受欢迎的人(或事)”:

His new record is a real hit.

他的新专辑极为成功,引起轰动。

近义词:beat v.(敲)打

(2019年,山东卷,动词应用)Liu hit the driver with her phone and prevented the driver from driving the bus safely.

20. hold:v.拿,抱,握住;进行,举行

词形变化:过去式held,过去分词held

用法小结→关联词组:

hold on=hang on别挂断;等一下;

hold up举起;hold back隐瞒;抑制;

hold onto=hang onto抓住不放

用法:hold除了表示“拿,握,抱”等肢体动作的含义,还经常用来表示“进行,举行,举办”的意思,常见搭配有

hold a meeting/party/competition等。

(2019年,山东卷,完形)Then jump straight up as high as you can after the squat position,holding your arms up directly over your head.

21.honest:adj.诚实的,正直的

用法小结→关联词组:to be honest老实说

1.honest前面的不定冠词要用an,不用a:an honestman;

2.be honest with sb.对某人诚实;

be honest about sth.坦诚(不隐瞒)某事

词性转换:

honesty n.诚实,正直;

honestly adv.诚实地,正直地:

honestly (speaking)=to be honest老实说

反义词:dishonest adj.不诚实的,不老实的

(2019年,湖北卷,短文填空)Tobe honest,if I compare China with the US, my answer has always been the same: “We are not worse or better than each other; we are only different.”

22.honour:n.荣誉,荣耀;尊敬

美式拼写:honor

用法小结→关联词组:

in honour of为纪念……;

for the honour of为了……的声誉;

have the honour of有幸……;

guest of honour贵宾

用法:

复数形式honours,特指“优异成绩”:

graduate with honours以优异成绩毕业

词性转换:

honoured adj.受尊敬的;

honourable adj.荣誉的,值得尊敬的

反义词:dishonour n.耻辱,丢脸

(2019年,湖北卷,阅读C)

We encourage our kids to take honorscourses(培优课程)or to have after-school jobs.

23.human:n.人类;adj.人的,人类的

用法小结→关联词组:

human body/brain人体/脑;

human being人;人类;

human nature人性

用法:human也可以作名词,此时human=human being,意为“人,人类”。

词性转换:

humanly adv.像人地;以人力;

humanity n.人类;人道

(2019年,北京卷,阅读D)Nowadays,smart machines give us access to most humanknowledge.

24.humorous:adj.幽默的

用法小结→关联词组:

humorous stories幽默故事

词性转换:

humorously adv.幽默地,滑稽地;

humour=humor n.幽默:

sense of humour幽默感;

black humour黑色幽默

(2019年,江苏卷,阅读A)

27.What does the underlined word “resolution” mean in the passage?

A.Promise.

B. Entertainment.

C.Humour

D. Secret.

25.hungry:adj.(饥)饿的;渴望的

用法小结:

hungry通常引申为“渴望的”,常用句式有

be hungry for sth.或

be hungry to do sth.:

She is hungry for success.她渴望成功。

She was hungry to learn.她渴望学习。

词性转换:hunger n.饥饿;

hungrily adv.饥饿地;渴望地

(2019年,山东卷,单项填空)

19. - I'm getting hungry. Do you know where we can get some good food?

- Of course! There ____________ a restaurant around the comer.

A. will be B. was C. is

26.hurry:v.&n.赶快,急忙

用法小结→动词词组:

hurry up赶快,快点

名词词组:

in ahurry着急,匆匆忙忙;

in no hurry不着急,不匆忙;

in such a hurry如此匆忙

用法:

1.hurry可搭配一些介词作状语,例如:hurry+ along/down:

She hurried along the road.她匆匆地沿路而行;

2.hurry/in a hurry to do sth.表示“着急(赶紧)做某事”:

Katewas in a hurry to grow up.

凯特急切地想长大。

(2019年,浙江卷,单项填空)

10.–Tony,hurryup and don't forget to lock the door.

-___________________. I'm getting my coat.

A.Wait a minute

B. No deal

C. Nothing serious

D.Bad luck

27.hurt

v.伤害,使受伤;感到疼痛

词形变化:过去式hurt,过去分词hurt

用法小结:

1.hurt作及物动词,宾语常常为身体部位或者反身代词:

hurt one’s arm/leg/nose;

hurt oneself;

也常用于被动语态,如:get hurt受伤了。

2.hurt作不及物动词,不接宾语,以身体部位作主语,表示“感到疼痛”,常用搭配有:

sth.hurts badly/a lot(某身体部位)很痛;

That/It(really) hurts!(真的)好疼!

同义词:ache v.疼

(2019年,浙江卷,阅读B)

29. According to the passage, what benefit can we get from trampolining?

A. It helps with bone growth.

B.It cures illnesses in our knees.

C. It helps reduce stress on muscles.

D.It prevents ears from being hurt.

声明:来源于网络!

中考英语核心词汇详解(H)


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